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Pharynx and Tonsils
Pharynx and Tonsils
- Is a funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that extends from the base of the skull to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage.
- Conducts food to the esophagus and air to the larynx and lungs.
A. NasopharynxIII. Innervation and Blood Supply of the Pharynx
- Is situated behind the nasal cavity above the soft palate and communicates with the nasal cavities through the nasal choanae.
- Contains the pharyngeal tonsils in its posterior wall.
- Is connected with the tympanic cavity through the auditory (eustachian) tube , which equalizes air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane.
C. Laryngopharynx (hypopharynx)
- Extends between the soft palate above and the superior border of the epiglottis below and communicates with the mouth through the oropharyngeal isthmus.
- Contains the palatine tonsils , which are lodged in the tonsillar fossae and are bounded by the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal folds.
- Extends from the upper border of the epiglottis to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage.
- Contains the piriform recesses , one on each side of the opening of the larynx, in which swallowed foreign bodies may be lodged.
A. Pharyngeal plexus
B. Arteries of the pharynx
- Lies on the middle pharyngeal constrictor.
- Is formed by the pharyngeal branches of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves and the sympathetic branches from the superior cervical ganglion.
- Its vagal branch innervates all of the muscles of the pharynx with the exception of the stylopharyngeus, which is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve.
- Its glossopharyngeal component supplies sensory fibers to the pharyngeal mucosa.
- Are the ascending pharyngeal artery ascending palatine branch of the facial artery descending palatine arteries, pharyngeal branches of the maxillary artery, and branches of the superior and inferior thyroid arteries.
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