Pericardium |

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Sep 21 2010, 6:19 PM EDT (current) AndyC
Sep 21 2010, 6:19 PM EDT AndyC

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Pericardium
  • Is a fibroserous sac that encloses the heart and the roots of the great vessels and occupies the middle mediastinum.
  • Is composed of the fibrous pericardium and serous pericardium.
  • Receives blood from the pericardiophrenic, bronchial, and esophageal arteries. Is innervated by vasomotor and sensory fibers from the phrenic and vagus nerves and the sympathetic trunks.
Fibrous pericardium
  • Is a strong, dense, fibrous layer that blends with the adventitia of the roots of the great vessels and the central tendon of the diaphragm.
Serous pericardium
  • Consists of the parietal layer , which lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium, and the visceral layer , which forms the outer layer (epicardium) of the heart wall and the roots of the great vessels.
Pericardial cavity
  • Is a potential space between the visceral layer of the serous pericardium (epicardium) and the parietal layer of the serous pericardium lining the inner surfaces of the fibrous pericardium.
Pericardial sinuses
Transverse sinus
  • Is a subdivision of the pericardial sac , lying posterior to the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk, anterior to the SVC, and superior to the left atrium and the pulmonary veins.
  • Is of great importance to the cardiac surgeon because, while performing surgery on the aorta or pulmonary artery, a surgeon can pass a finger and make a ligature through the sinus between the arteries and veins, thus stopping the blood circulation with the ligature.
Oblique sinus
  • Is a subdivision of the pericardial sac behind the heart, surrounded by the reflection of the serous pericardium around the right and left pulmonary veins and the inferior vena cava (IVC).


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