Lumbar - Lateral (Flexion and Extension)This is a featured page

Radiographic Positioning


Adult
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Name of projection Lumbar - Lateral (Flexion and Extension)
Area Covered T12 - Sacrum, intervertebral foramina L1 to L4, vertebral bodies, intervertebral joints, spinous processes, and L5 to S1 junction, entire sacrum may be visualised
Pathology shownErect flexion and extension views are used to detect lower lumbar instability - a cause of lower back pain, stability of fractures can also be assessed
Radiographic AnatomyLumbar Spine Radiographic Anatomy
IR Size & Orientation 35 x 43 cm larger patient
30 x 35 cm smaller patient
Portrait
Film / Screen Combination Regular
(CR and DR as recommended by manufacturer)
Bucky / Grid Moving or Stationary Grid
Filter No
Exposure 80 kVp x 40 mAs or
breathing technqiue 80 kVp x 40 mA with 2 seconds exposure time see lateral lumbar breathing technique
FFD / SID 100 cm
Central Ray CR perpendicular to long axis of spine
Larger patient - centre to iliac crest (L4-5)
Smaller patient - centre to L3 (lower costal margin) (4cm above iliac crest)
Collimation Inferior to Superior - collimate to film size
Lateral borders closely collimate (light field will appear small due to the patient being close to the X-ray tube)
Markers Superior and Lateral
Marker orientation AP
Shielding Gonadal (check your department's policy guidelines)
RespirationSuspend respiration on expiration or use breathing technique
Positioningperformed erect


often performed as a series of extension, neutral and flexion lumbar spine
see imaging vertebral body wedge fractures
Critique

Positioning
Area Covered
Collimation
Exposure
Special Notes



AndyC
AndyC
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