|Hip - Joints and Ligaments|
Hip (Coxal) BoneJoint
- Is a multiaxial ball-and-socket synovial joint between the acetabulum of the hip bone and the head of the femur and allows abduction and adduction, flexion and extension, and circumduction and rotation.
- Is stabilized by the acetabular labrum; the fibrous capsule; and capsular ligaments such as the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments.
- Has a cavity that is deepened by the fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum and is completed below by the transverse acetabular ligament , which bridges and converts the acetabular notch into a foramen for passage of nutrient vessels and nerves.
- Receives blood from branches of the medial and lateral femoral circumflex, superior and inferior gluteal, and obturator arteries. The posterior branch of the obturator artery gives rise to the artery of the ligamentum teres capitis femoris.
- Is innervated by branches of the femoral, obturator, sciatic, and superior gluteal nerves and by the nerve to the quadratus femoris.
- Is a complete fibrocartilage rim that deepens the articular socket for the head of the femur and consequently stabilizes the hip joint.
- Is attached proximally to the margin of the acetabulum and to the transverse acetabular ligament.
- Is attached distally to the neck of the femur as follows: anteriorly to the intertrochanteric line and the root of the greater trochanter and posteriorly to the intertrochanteric crest.
- Encloses part of the head and most of the neck of the femur.
- Is reinforced anteriorly by the iliofemoral ligament, posteriorly by the ischiofemoral ligament, and inferiorly by the pubofemoral ligament.
- Is the largest and most important ligament that reinforces the fibrous capsule anteriorly and is in the form of an inverted Y.
- Is attached proximally to the anterior-inferior iliac spine and the acetabular rim and distally to the intertrochanteric line and the front of the greater trochanter of the femur.
- Resists hyperextension and lateral rotation at the hip joint during standing.
- Reinforces the fibrous capsule posteriorly, extends from the ischial portion of the acetabular rim to the neck of the femur medial to the base of the greater trochanter, and limits extension and medial rotation of the thigh.
Ligamentum teres capitis femoris (round ligament of head of femur)
- Reinforces the fibrous capsule inferiorly, extends from the pubic portion of the acetabular rim and the superior pubic ramus to the lower part of the femoral neck, and limits extension and abduction.
Transverse acetabular ligament
- Arises from the floor of the acetabular fossa (more specifically, from the margins of the acetabular notch and from the transverse acetabular ligament) and attaches to the fovea capitis femoris.
- Provides a pathway for the artery of the ligamentum capitis femoris (foveolar artery) from the obturator artery, which is of variable size but represents a significant portion of the blood supply to the femoral head during childhood.
- Is a fibrous band that bridges the acetabular notch and converts it into a foramen, through which the nutrient vessels enter the joint.
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