Sign in or
Female Genital Organs
Gross Anatomy - Female Genital Organs
- Lie on the posterior aspect of the broad ligament on the side wall of the pelvic minor and are bounded by the external and internal iliac vessels.
- Are not covered by the peritoneum, and thus the ovum or oocyte is expelled into the peritoneal cavity and then into the uterine tube.
- Are not enclosed in the broad ligament, but their anterior surface is attached to the posterior layer of the broad ligament by the mesovarium.
- Have a surface that is covered by germinal (columnar) epithelium , which is modified from the developmental peritoneal covering of the ovary.
- Are supplied primarily by the ovarian arteries, which are contained in the suspensory ligament and anastomose with branches of the uterine artery.
- Are drained by the ovarian veins; the right ovarian vein joins the inferior vena cava, and the left ovarian vein joins the left renal vein.
- Extend from the uterus to the uterine end of the ovaries and connect the uterine cavity to the peritoneal cavity.
- Are each subdivided into four parts: the uterine part , the isthmus , the ampulla (the longest and widest part), and the infundibulum (the funnel-shaped termination formed of fimbriae ).
- Convey the fertilized or unfertilized oocytes to the uterus by ciliary action and muscular contraction, which takes 3 to 4 days.
- Transport spermatozoa in the opposite direction (toward the eggs); fertilization takes place within the tube, usually in the infundibulum or ampulla. Fertilization is the process beginning with penetration of the secondary oocyte by the sperm and completed by fusion of the male and female pronuclei.
- Is the organ of gestation in which the fertilized oocyte normally becomes embedded and the developing organism grows until its birth.
- Is normally anteverted (i.e., angle of 90 degrees at the junction of the vagina and cervical canal) and anteflexed (i.e., angle of 160 to 170 degrees at the junction of the cervix and body).
- Is supported by the pelvic diaphragm; the urogenital diaphragm; the round, broad, lateral, or transverse cervical (cardinal) ligaments; and the pubocervical, sacrocervical, and rectouterine ligaments.
- Is supplied primarily by the uterine artery and secondarily by the ovarian artery.
- Has an anterior surface that rests on the posterosuperior surface of the bladder.
- Is divided into four parts for the purpose of description:
1. FundusD. Vagina
- Is the rounded part of the uterus located superior and anterior to the plane of the entrance of the uterine tube.
- Is the main part of the uterus located inferior to the fundus and superior to the isthmus. The uterine cavity is triangular in the coronal section and is continuous with the lumina of the uterine tube and with the internal os.
- Is the constricted part of the uterus located between the body and cervix of the uterus. It corresponds to the internal os.
- Is the inferior narrow part of the uterus that projects into the vagina and divides into the following regions:
- Internal os: the junction of the cervical canal with the uterine body.
- Cervical canal : the cavity of the cervix between the internal and external ostia.
- External os : the opening of the cervical canal into the vagina.
- Extends between the vestibule and the cervix of the uterus.
- Is located at the lower end of the birth canal.
- Serves as the excretory channel for the products of menstruation; also serves to receive the penis during coitus.
- Has a fornix that forms the recess between the cervix and the wall of the vagina.
- Opens into the vestibule and is partially closed by a membranous crescentic fold, the hymen.
- Is supported by the levator ani; the transverse cervical, pubocervical, and sacrocervical ligaments (upper part); the urogenital diaphragm (middle part); and the perineal body (lower part).
- Receives blood from the vaginal branches of the uterine artery and of the internal iliac artery.
- Has lymphatic drainage in two directions: the lymphatics from the upper three fourths drain into the internal iliac nodes, and the lymphatics from the lower one fourth, below the hymen, drain downward to the perineum and thus into the superficial inguinal nodes.
- Is innervated by nerves derived from the uterovaginal plexus for the upper three fourths and by the deep perineal branch of the pudendal nerve for the lower one fourth.
◄.....Go back to the Gross Anatomy homepage
Latest page update: made by AndyC
, Apr 26 2011, 6:02 AM EDT
(about this update
About This Update
Edited by AndyC
716 words added
- complete history)
Keyword tags: None
More Info: links to this page